Rappel Extension Options

When a technical descent requires a rappel, choosing to add an extension is often beneficial for adding safety and efficiency. There are a variety of methods for creating rappel extensions, each one carrying advantages and disadvantages making use of materials and application important. With this in mind we will explore some of the ways to extend rappels while looking at the nuances of the individual methods.

First, lets take a look at the girth-hitching methods. The girth hitch with anchor attachments has come under scrutiny in the last decade due to it causing weakening of the material used, so it is best to use nylon and stay away from super static, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyurethane, (UHMWPE) materials like dyneema for this application.

This “girth hitched master-point” method makes a very obvious master-point for the rappel device and attachment to the anchor. Once you start to descend you clip the anchoring carabineer to your belay loop to make the system redundant while on rappel. The downside to this method is you should use nylon and the tether is not all that long as tying the master point eats up a lot of material.


This second method, the “girth hitched overhand” method also uses the girth hitch and is a great way to use the full length of material for the anchor attachment allowing more comfort at the rappel stations.  The anchor attachment can again be clipped to the belay loop upon decent to achieve some redundancy. The down side to the method is needing to use nylon and also the bulky overhand knot that stays in the carabineer.  This knot can make it hard to work with the carabineer and it has an ambiguous clip-in point for the rappel device.


The next series of extended rappels we will look at involve basketing instead of the girth hitch. This allows us to use UHMWPE type materials like dynema without compromising the strength of our tethers.

Below is the “basketed sling with an overhand” method. This method creates a full strength extension with redundancy at every part. It is best used for single pitch rappelling as it does not have a separate anchor extension and can be cumbersome to clip in during multi-pitch descents.


The basketed offset overhand method shown below provides a longer extension for clipping into anchors while allowing the use of UHMWPE type materials. It also provides a redundant place to clip the rappel device which can be important for long and or multiple rappels due to the lower melting point of UHMWPE materials.


Sometimes it is nice to separate your tether from your rappel in this bottom example a locking draw extension is used to rappel and then you can choose what ever independent attachment to the anchor that you would like. This can allow for long extensions and more comfort at the anchors.


Learning these extension methods will help you improve the efficiency and safety of your rappelling systems.

Nature Deficit Disorder?

Nature Deficit Disorder! Really? There has been so much great conversation in the press the last several years about the value of kids getting outside more often and I love the conversations it has sparked. Do I think we need another set of letters to throw around describing behaviors that worry us as parents? No, not really. I love taking people climbing, often for me those days are more rewarding than sending a new route from my personal tick list, I suppose that is one reason I enjoy my work with Fox Mountain Guides. The interactions between family members while out climbing are one of my favorite aspects of this work. Watching a child belay a parent and seeing the parent trust that child when they take a fall or get lowered down from a high ledge is inspiring for me. Siblings pushing one another and building each other up to tackle a harder climb or give the crux one more try are other moments  always grand to witness. When young people engage in climbing I believe that some amazing things can happen.

A concept in psychology that often gets discussed is Internal versus External Locus of Control. Being too rigidly entrenched on either side is likely bad for a person but in general we find that people who have a healthy sense of Internal Locus of Control handle life’s challenges a bit better.  This concept states that if I believe that my actions have meaning and consequences in a logical and predictable manner that I am more likely to make choices that lead to better outcomes. That may mean studying hard to pass a test, practicing driving skills, or having the confidence to ask that special person out on a date. In climbing we learn how to apply our bodies to gain height up a section of rock or ice and we discover that applying good technique leads to improved outcomes. Learning the craft of being a good belayer, anchor builder, or gear placement allows the individual to access increasingly greater challenges and rewards. The responsibility of holding the lifeline of another person is a visceral experience that can lead to tremendous gains in a person’s confidence.


For me climbing seems to accommodate a wide range of personality types, there is plenty of adrenaline out there for the high sensation seekers if that is what one gravitates toward. For the more calculating pensive types the experience of unlocking the puzzle of an intricate sequence of movements or crafting a svelte belay station can be fantastic rewards. Something else I like about climbing is that you do not have to be in great physical shape to start with it. As a child I was overweight from too little exercise and too much junk food. I was fortunate enough to have a coach in Judo pull me aside one day and tell me as much. I knew that he was not being mean or cruel or making fun of me, just expressing concern. I started running at a track near my house and changed my diet. Right around this same time I discovered climbing and as a result I believe I discovered my true self. Climbing allowed me to have a purpose for good health that I could be passionate about, making exercise an act of joy versus something I “had to do”.

Fall is upon us. This is the magic time for rock climbers when the cooler temps allow us to try hard projects and really go for it. I’m looking forward to watching many kids I know crush boulder problems that have long lingered on their tick list and get the red point on a lead climb they have been dreaming of all year. They will inspire me and I will train a little harder myself and maybe one or two of my goals will get checked off as well. All of this magic happens through climbing and these kids getting outside. I am so lucky to be a part of that. So if your child hasn’t tried climbing yet I certainly recommend you give it a try. Maybe they will love it or maybe it will just be a really cool experience that gives them a boost in confidence, either way I think you will find that getting outside together as a family can lead to some great memories and some great conversations. Be well and I hope to see you out on the rocks or trails.

Adrian Hurst

AMGA Single Pitch Instructor/ Nationally Certified School Psychologist


Ice Climbing

As the summer guiding season comes to an end, I finally have some time to write. Also my thoughts begin to wander towards what is to come. Most rock climbers are getting excited about the fall temps with drier air. Fiction will be plentiful and many projects will fall to those who have been training over the past few humid months. But for me, I am more excited about the cold temps that tend to follow the cool of the fall. I cannot wait for winter to get here.

I thoroughly enjoy climbing in the winter, particularly the ice climbing. I have been ice climbing since 2008 when I took a trip to Ouray, Colorado. There I was blown away at how much fun climbing frozen water can be. I loved it so much that upon my return to Illinois, I began scheming of ways to go back to Ouray. The plans were never put into action and I remained in Illinois for a few more years. During those years, I did begin to purchase boots, crampons, and ice tools. That same winter, the weather was cold enough to form some of the waterfalls at Jackson Falls into ice climbs.

The next winter I did my first ice leads in North Carolina and in New Hampshire. I was hooked. That next winter I did as much ice climbing as I could so that I would be able to take the ice instructor course.

This past winter I took the AMGA’s Ice Instructor Course in Ouray, Colorado. It was nice to go back to the place where I started ice climbing to take this course which would giving me the training to more effectively guide waterfall ice terrain. Later that winter I went up to New Hampshire as we do every year at Fox Mountain Guides but this year was different; I would be guiding.

Every year we look forward to this trip. For us it gives us a change of scenery and some of the best ice climbing in the country in which to take our clients and have a bit of fun. This last year I had the privilege to co-teach two courses, the Ice 101 and the Advanced Ice Course which was brand new this year.

The 101 course is exactly what it sounds like, it teaches you the basics. We begin with learning how to use crampons and ice tools and spend the next few days improving on the techniques involved in climbing ice. It is a great time where as an instructor I get to see our guests improve vastly in just a few days.

I also had the opportunity to co-teach the newest course for Fox which was the advanced ice course with Karsten. In this course we taught the students the techniques involved in leading ice and handling steeper terrain. On the second day of the course some students get on the sharp end and led their first ice climbs. One guest who did their first lead on the advanced course did their first ice climb only a week before in the 101 course.

People always ask me which I like better, rock climbing or ice climbing. Ice climb does seem like more of a treat. I am only able to climb ice for a short period every winter. Also, climbing on a medium that changes constantly fascinates me. Rock routes very rarely change over time but ice routes can change in a matter of hours and are different from one day to the next. I also like that the inherent risks are different than with rock climbing. Though there is a chance of rock fall and holds breaking while climbing on rock; on ice, this is a guarantee. This route will fall down at some point and ice will come off of it. Engaging this risk in a calculated manner makes ice climbing more interesting.

This winter you can come join myself and the other guides at Fox Mountain Guides in New Hampshire for one or all of our winter courses. Check out the link below and the video with footage from last year’s trip.

You can find out more information about our winter courses here on the Fox Mountain Guides Website.

AMGA SPI student Zach Silberman

his Spring, on April 5-7, Zach Silberman participated in the AMGA Single Pitch Instructor Course with Fox Mountain Guides. Zach was a great student, and he documented much of his experience. Here is rare glimpse into the day to day insights and experiences of an aspiring single pitch instructor:

Day 1

Today we ventured to the base of Looking Glass, South Side. After a long but modest hike, we set up at the base of a slabbed out 5.10, a couple moderate crack climbs, and another climb that Ron selected to demonstrate the difference between leading a lead and instructing a lead.

Lesson 1: Organize the Locker Room

Lesson 1: Organize the Locker Room.

Ron gave us a quick rundown of professionalism at the crag and to make sure clients understand the process.

  • Why wear a helmet?
  • How and where do I poop?
  • How do I belay?
  • What is a back up belay?

After the quick chat, he laced up and talked us through the climb to point out key cruxes and demonstrated proper hand, foot, and cam placement.

ronshoe ronglamourshot

Once setting up a top rope for us to climb, Ron led us through the history of belaying. Beginning with the elusive butt belay, then the Munter Hitch, followed by the Air Traffic Controller (ATC) and concluding with the GriGri.





After this enlightening discussion we all topped out the climb and set up camp about 100 feet off the ground. I wish I had brought my camera up. It was gorgeous. The exposure was amazing! Upon a ledge we practiced securely lowering our teammates down and belaying them back up using the Munter Hitch, ATC, and GriGri.

After a few trials, we all rappelled down off of an ATC and were given a quick lunch break.


After a satisfying meal at the crag, Ron got us back on our feet to practice some anchor building and knot tying. We started with the Bowline Knot, both tying-in and anchor building:




Bowline + Bowline with a Bight + Big Huge Knot (BHK) = Success (Given this Context)

After going over some basics, Derek Debruin met us out to go over some knots, friction hitches, and other basics, including the Double Figure-Eight (Bunny Ears), Prussik, Klemheist and Mule Knot on an ATC.





Day 2

Today we marched into Rumbing Bald. Passing by boulders, I was eager to strap up. That would have to wait. Today, we came to anchor build! I was not very well trained in this subject, so today was quite a challenge. I learned so much! From placing a cam well, to building anchors with natural objects, my mind was blown from moment to moment.

Cam Anchor Cam Anchor


Utilizing trees and highpoints as an elevator. It makes going over the edge so much easier.

After spending a good bit of time on building proper anchors, I learned about governign concepts like redundancy, load distribution, strength, efficiency, and how a climbing instructor uses an anchor to manage explicit and implicit risks. With anchoring skills thoroughly explored, we moved to the base of the major face of the Bald. Here we practiced and honed our skills in lowering participants off ledges and recovering them if unable to ascend back up. Not only did we gain competence in the technical skills, but also the toolset of talking participants through differing challenges (going over the first ledge, bracing with feet, watching for features in the rock, etc)fullsystem

After finishing Day 2. Derek and Ron introduced us to the best extracurricular activity; BOULDERING. Below are the rules

  • 43 Boulder Problems
  • V0-V7
  • No Pads
  • Only Approach Shoes
  • Two Attempts Each
  • Gold= Flash All Problems Silver= Send All Problems
  • Run to From Problem to Problem

This was sick. It was inspiring watching Ron and Derek crush hard lines in just their hiking shoes. Ron was able to get a Silver Medal, falling on only one problem!


Book Review of Training for the New Alpinism by Steve House

Recently, Patagonia Books published Training for the New Alpinism: A Manual for the Climber as Athlete by Steve House and Scott Johnston. Constantly seeking to better myself as a climber, I could not resist the title. I have read Mark Twight’s Extreme Alpinism: Climbing Light, Fast, and High cover-to-cover numerous times. At the time of publication, it was widely considered a template for cutting-edge alpinism involving structured physical training and unconventional techniques on next-level climbs. House and Johnston’s new book appeared to be a worthy successor to Twight’s title, and it certainly proved so on the first read.

The first thing I noticed when I got the book was its size; this thing is BIG. The author’s choice of the word “manual” for the title was clearly intentional. The book is textbook-sized and organized like one. Like any good textbook, though, the material is presented in an extremely accessible manner. The writing style utilizes clear, concise, and palatable word choice. It addresses complex topics in a way that allows for comprehension while avoiding oversimplification as well as unnecessary details. The text also features great full-color photographs to inspire and motivate, in addition to vignettes from some of alpinism’s finest. The list of guest-authors for these mini-articles reads like a who’s who of cutting edge alpine climbing from the 1970s to the present.

As for the content itself, the reader will find little that is groundbreaking from an exercise physiology or sports science perspective. Much of our knowledge of the unique sport of climbing is drawn from the vast annals of decades of research and experience in other well-studied pursuits such as running, cycling, and Olympic lifting. However, whereas much of this information is left scattered across a variety of texts to cobbled together piecemeal by the interested alpinist, House and Johnston’s valuable tome compiles the wealth of knowledge into a single location. Further, the extraneous information is winnowed from the climbing-specific knowledge, leaving the reader with a wonderfully dense amalgamation on­­­­­ the pursuit of alpine climbing as an athletic endeavor.

The text guides the reader through all the necessary fundamental lessons in physiology before addressing each phase of a well-designed training program, from recovery and transition, to base period and muscular endurance, to peak and tapering. Also included are specific treatments of altitude physiology and training, nutrition, and mental fitness. Finally, accompanying spreadsheets available for download aid the budding trainee in constructing an appropriate program and recording progress.

True to the nature of the alpine environment, the text pulls no punches in reminding the reader that training is difficult, self-discipline is demanded, and peaks in strength and ability only happen at the end of a long march through a challenging build-up of fitness. A few quotations prove telling and unapologetic: “You can’t coach desire.” “Eliminating all alcoholic beverages may be a good idea while training and climbing.” “The only good reason to climb is to improve yourself.” “No movies, no television, no gaming…reduce music…reduce internet and e-mail…avoid drama.” “Progress is simple: you must want who you might become more than who you are right now.” However, to the reader who can cope with these Spartan recommendations, the fruits of the labor are promised as literally “being in the best shape of your life.”

While the text is no doubt compelling, it does have its limitations. A few more typos and editing errors than normal provide occasional distractions to the reader and demand a bit more thorough line editing. This slight inconvenience aside, the book is quite clear in its target of alpine climbers. Those looking to improve their sport climbing game could certainly learn volumes about physiology, structured training plans, periodization, and nutrition, but they would likely be better served by the many books Eric Hörst has published specifically regarding training for technical rock climbing. There are prescriptions for gaining the cardiovascular fitness to move heavy loads uphill steadily and quickly, but none for maximizing your hangboard workout or sending that sick project at the Red River Gorge.

Training for the New Alpinism provides a wealth of knowledge and inspiration for both well-trained alpinists and those just entering the realm of structured, goal-directed exercise. The text unabashedly advocates a plan for becoming a better climber in the lofty realms of snow, rock, and ice guarded by tempestuous and hostile environs. Finally, it does this while extolling the virtues of disciplined training, exhorting readers to push their limits. It waits patiently, hoping to bear witness to the next generation of strong mountain athletes willing to follow its precepts, pushing the limits of human possibility ever-further.


Ice Climbing: “A Leader’s Game”

Ice climbing is one of the essential tools for alpine climbing. Moving efficiently across mixed and ice terrain is a must to be efficient in the mountains. Ice climbing as a sport itself has exploded over the past ten years. There are now “ice fests” all across the country, and many folks attend these, take clinics, and try out all the new exciting gear.

This year in New Hampshire, I helped run the first ever Advanced Ice course that Fox Mountain Guides has offered, with the main focus on leading ice. In this course we talk about the seriousness of the leads and how ice climbing isn’t like rock climbing in that falling is not an accepted part of leading. We look at videos like this one (Dracula Fall) and this one (Kennedy Gully). We talk about what went wrong and how to avoid these problems.

By the time we put our guests on the sharp end, they tend to style WI3+/4-. The reason: they understand they can’t fall. We teach them to be very methodical and to move with the confidence of an unroped ascent. They understand what the risks are and accept them before they leave the ground. I can teach someone who is reasonably athletic to climb WI4 by the end of a day. As they follow me up a climb, they can use my pick holes and can trust less-than-marginal tool placements and have scrappy feet without the thought of falling and twisting an ankle…or worse.

Vince Anderson was speaking at the Adirondack Mountain Fest this year and pointed out that probably the top 10% of the crowd of climbers could get up the hardest ice lines in the world. He then went on to say that it would be unlikely that even 1% of us could lead them. I would have to agree with that. I will try anything on tope rope; put me on lead and my self-preservation starts to kick in. This is a no fall activity. Ice climbing is much more serious on the sharp end; it is in fact “a leader’s game.” The mental fortitude it takes to lead a more serious ice line is out of the realm of most ice climbers. This is because we are pushing the line between soloing and having a rope on. If every rock climber had to start soloing instead of placing protection on lead, we would see a huge number of people who would only top rope most climbs (me included). Due to this, leading hard ice pitches puts you in a state of focus you can’t get when the rope is above you. It is a game I like to play!


For more info on Karsten check out his personal blog here: www.karstendelap.com

FMG Summer Camp 2014 Recap

Regular Camp A with Travis

Our first summer camp of the season was a great success! Campers started this exciting week with a quick session at the Nose Area of Looking Glass on arrival day, which prepared them for some serious crushing at the South Face on Monday. Taking a break from ropes, they pushed themselves on the boulders at Rumbling Bald Tuesday. Wednesday and Thursday campers covered hundreds of feet rock multi-pitch climbing at Looking Glass and Table Rock. Camper Cathy Kramer even got to lead the first pitch of the “Cave Route” at Table Rock! Camp ended with a fun day of top roping at Rumbling Bald on Friday where campers tried hard on climbs like “Frosted Flake.”

Regular Camp B with Ron

Sunday started what would become a trend for the week- water soloing, or climbing ropeless on boulders overhanging swimming holes. Campers’ incentive not to fall was the icy water below! Monday and Tuesday camp went top roping at the North Side of Looking Glass and at Cedar Rock. At Cedar Rock, camper Davis picked “Glass Dancer” for Ron’s instructor challenge- an opportunity for campers to choose any route they want to see an instructor climb. Ron took the rope to the top and campers enjoyed the climb throughout the day. An excursion to the Grandmother boulders in Boone filled up Wednesday while Thursday was camp’s “South Face Assault”- all 9 campers went up 5 whole pitches of climbing as a single group. Friday’s rain couldn’t stop the fun- camp went bouldering at Rumbling Bald and got muddy doing obstacles down the trail.

Regular Camp B campers on top of a boulder at Grandmother in Boone, NC Regular Camp B campers on top of a boulder at Grandmother in Boone, NC

Senior Camp with Travis

Climbers warmed up for their week on Sunday with some climbing at the Nose Area of Looking Glass. Unfortunately, a rainy Monday meant being sent indoors to the climbing gym but the campers made the most of it and put down some really fun lines. They also used the downtime to strengthen their technical skills with the resources of Fox’s indoor classroom and Travis’ instruction. Clearer weather on Tuesday meant some fun and challenging climbing at the North Side of Looking Glass on climbs like “The Seal,” “Killer Whales” and “Invisible Airwaves.” Some multi-pitch climbing at Table Rock on Wednesday prepped campers for the Thursday blitz of the “Nose“- 12 people up 4 pitches in 1:37:56! Even after this impressive feat, our campers were still psyched on Friday when they continued to push themselves at Rumbling Bald by doing mock leads on “Fruit Loops” and climbing challenging routes like “Shredded Wheat.”

Senior Camp at the summit of The Nose after their speed ascent Senior Camp at the summit of The Nose after their speed ascent

Delicious meals and great company throughout all the camps made it difficult to say goodbye but we hope to see some familiar faces next summer! Learn more about FMG Summer Camps.

Whiteside Mountain Ice Topo Map

With ice season in full swing here in North Carolina, I’ve been spending a lot of time sinking my picks into the frozen stuff at Whiteside Mountain.  With fickle ice conditions in the Southeast, it can be hard to know when the ice is in.  But with ice climbing beta so hard to come by, it can also be challenging to know where the ice is in.  I thought I would rectify this by producing the first complete, publicly available topo map of Whiteside Mountain, NC, where the ice is frequently great and there is plenty of it to choose from.  Single pitch or multipitch, moderate ice slabs or overhanging mixed projects–there’s a little bit of everything at Whitesides.  If you’d like the personalized tour, book a day with one of our guides.  Or, if you’ve got a handle on southern ice but would like to try your hand at some crystalline waterfalls a bit further afield, check out our full bevvy of ice climbing programs in New Hampshire.

Patagonia Trip Report

In November 2013, Derek DeBruin, Kevin Shon, and Karsten Delap traveled to Argentina to attempt a new route on the east face of Cerro San Lorenzo. San Lorenzo is located in central Patagonia, north of Chaltén in the Santa Cruz province. Entrance to the southern reaches of the Argentine portion of the mountain is gained through Parque Nacional Perito Moreno.

The trio began the trek via the Rio Lacteo Valley on November 15 with enough time and provisions for approximately 8 to 10 days while waiting for a weather window. After 5 days camped in the morainal talus near the head of Glaciar Lacteo, the group experienced only poor weather, predominantly freezing rain and snow with extreme winds.

Finally, a morning of fair skies led to a brief 12-hour weather window. This was not enough time to attempt a route on San Lorenzo’s approximately 5,000 foot east face, but did provide an opening for climbing on the agujas of nearby Cerro Penitentes. The team completed a first ascent of the northernmost pillar of Cerro Penitentes at an elevation of 2211 meters (7,254 feet). The pillar included approximately 80 feet of 5.7 climbing atop approximately 5 kilometers (approx. 3 miles) navigating snow and talus in the peak’s principle northern drainage near Lago Lacteo.

The following evening saw the return of foul weather and a forecast for at least 3 additional days of high winds and heavy precipitation. Given the limited time and supplies remaining, the group elected to head north to sample the climbing near San Carlos de Bariloche in hopes of better weather. On the trek out, they passed the group of Bryan Gilmore, Mikey Schaefer, and Josh Wharton. This team was basecamping at Puesto San Lorenzo, also with aspirations on the East Face. They planned to stay for the rest of November and the first few weeks of December if necessary, allotting an entire month in hopes of an adequate weather window.

Once back in Bariloche, Derek, Kevin, and Karsten spent most of their time on Monte Tronador with a dash of limestone sport cragging thrown in for good measure. The team hopes to return to Cerro San Lorenzo in 2014 with more time for another attempt on the East Face. Full beta for the trip and a narrative blog series are coming soon!

This expedition was made possible in part by a grant from the American Alpine Club as well as support from Ibex OutdoorClothing, BlueWater Ropes, Goal ZERO, and Native Eyewear.


Early Season Ice Gear Thoughts

Thank you nature, there’s a chill in the air. Sweaty season is over. I’m putting on a light jacket in the morning and that means ice season is on its way.

What kind of gear should you let dry by a fire after a great day of ice climbing? I asked the Fox Mountain Guides and below is a summary of answers to some questions from a client joining us for the upcoming New Hampshire ice trip.

Leashes,tethers, or nada?

Nada is the most common answer. Leashes are handcuffs. I admit to dropping a tool near my belaying son last year though and plan to get tethers for multi-pitch terrain where a tool loss would be a major problem.

Adzes, hammers, or nothing?

Hammers on both tools. Less fear of severe face lacerations. A hammer to hammer pick setting can be good for the nerves when things get scary on lead. The answers from guides who visit alpine terrain remind us that an adze can be handy for carving out steps,bollards and platforms.

Mono point or dual point?

Dual. Mono points are well liked for the most technical ice but two point crampons were the most frequent answer. Some serious efficiency was mentioned however by using mono points to select already prepared pick holes instead of another tiring kick.

Plastic or leather?

Leather boots provide the right combo of warmth and comfort for most settings. Unless your goal is extreme conditions at extreme altitudes leather boots offer enough warmth and better performance.

Pants or bibs?

Pants. As much as I hate biting wind on the small of my back the feeling of bibs never appealed to me at all. They always seem to ride north when I reach. Go with good soft shell pants unless the weather gets nasty then have your hard shell. The Patagonia guide pants have a wonderful feel. Tuck in a long shirt.

Gloves:Thin and manageable or thick and warm?

The consensus is just in the middle. Lined leather work gloves from Marmot smeared in mink oil are durable and grippy. A couple pair of fleece gloves inside the jacket to switch in and out for warmth at the belay.

Oversized boots with extra socks?

No. Let the quality of the boot provide the warmth. Get them well fitting with your regular high quality medium weight hiking sock. You will walk a while in these after some multi pitch adventures so comfort is important.

Who makes the best boots?

La Sportiva boots are super awesome and were the unanimous choice of the Fox Mountain Guides. I bought otherwise a few years ago because of a killer price and bent the lace hooks during tightening. Look at the Nepal EVO GTX. You can tell they were made with love.

Hope you enjoyed the answers. The first person to send me an email correctly stating which tiny piece of imperative Ice climbing equipment I’m thinking of will receive one by mail.

I hope to see you in New Hampshire where ice screws sink all the way down!